The Industrial Revolution in England brought up the problems of health and sanitation.
Industrial town like Sheffield, Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds has many factories and so well populated with the high risk of diseases.
Many kinds of diseases came to existence. Among them Small Pox was considered the deadliest. It ruined beauty and life.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu – introduced inoculation from Turkey and an inoculation hospital in London.
Jenner- discovered vaccination.
Lying-in hospitals were established where people can stay till they are cured.
After 1700, not less than 154 hospitals were built.
Captain Coram- could not endure the sight of babies lying deserted in streets.
He worked to establish hospital for these children.
Handel and Hogarth assisted him.
After long years in 1745 a hospital was opened.
PRISON AND PRISONERS:
General Oglethorpe- drew attention of the public to the scandal of debtor’s prisons.
In 1729- he induced the Parliament to make investigations into the horrors of the prisoners in Fleet Street and Marshalsea.
John Howard and Elizabethan Fry are the other humanitarians who worked for the improvement of prisoners.
Yet it continued to be the National disgrace.
English legal system was in chaos.
Many minor crimes where punished to death.
Almost two hundreds were put to death.
Horse stealing, coining, stealing in a shop even 5 shilling were treated with death punishment.
Robert Peele in 1829 introduced the Police System throughout the country to maintain order and peace.
ANTI- SLAVERY PROPAGANDA:
England was involved in slave trade since 1700s after the establishment of American Colonies.
Early as 1771, 53 ships from London, 23 ships from Bristol and 107 ships from Liverpool transported 50,000 slaves that year.
Goods were sold in exchange for slaves.
This happened close to the textile industry of Lancashire.
English cotton was sold well as there were brought by the masters to clothe their slaves. (this trade went on for years together without anyone to question)
Dr. Johnson- first to object to the slave-trade on moral grounds.
Horace Walpole- opposed this inhuman practice.
William Wilberforce made Anti-Slavery system popular.
After a lot of efforts it was abolished in 1807.
The aim was to abolish slavery in all the British colonies.
And so the Anti-Slavery propaganda was continued.
It was achieved in 1833. The year William Wilberforce died.
LABOURERS AND PAUPERS:
To deal with the locales Working System was introduced.
According to this anyone who does not stay in the workhouses will not be eligible for any relief. This system was a failure.
The rapid growth of population decreased the job opportunities.
The wages were low and the basic necessities rate was high.
To better the situation the Speedhamland Act was passed in 1795.
In 1833 a commission was set to study the poor laws and report to the parliament.
The corrupt practices of the Poor Law administration came to light.
In order to improve labourers and paupers the Poor Law Amendment was passed in 1834.
This new system was a great success yet was defective.
Again a commission was arranged in 1905 for the same purpose. The team reported in 1909.
It was listed the causes of poverty as drunkenness, disease, early and improvident marriages, casual labour, etc.
And so children were removed from workhouses.
A separate institution was arranged for the aged poor.
To reduce unemployment- the Labour Exchange and State Insurance Scheme were recommended.
THE SALVATION ARMY:
In 1856- William Booth found the Salvation Army. He was popularly known as General Booth.
He drew attention of people towards the degraded section of society- the homeless, the unfed, the drunkard, the criminal and the harlot.
He emphasized to take care of the material conditions of the poor.
TEETOTALISM OR TOTAL ABSTINENCE:
This movement helped in eradicating drunkenness as it was evil to society, men, family and the source for many crimes.
Great caricaturists of time – Hogarth and George Cruikshank helped the movement with many drawings.
George Cruikshank, himself a teetotaler drew a series of horrifying images showing the progress of the love of liquor from the cradle to the grave.
This followed to be an organized propaganda to eradicate drunkenness from all classes by The Blue Ribbon Army.
Blue ribbon was worn near breasts by people who took pledges.
Many volunteers were drawn to this movement and so this had a great influence among people.
The policy followed during Industrial Revolution was laissez-faire. (acc to this employers and employees can regulate matters for themselves with little interference from the government)
The poor- workers were not able to bargain from their rich masters.
The increased demand for English goods met with production hike.
And so day and night work became inevitable and women and children were expected to work beyond their intelligence and strength.
They were not allowed to organize unions and voice their grievances.
Sir William Ashley Cooper, a philanthropist and religious leaders helped to bring this to the notice of authorities.
And so various forms of working class associations grew which led to a number of Factory Acts to pass.
Social History of England by Louise Creighton
An Introduction to the Social History of England by A.G.Xavier
A Short History of Social Life in England by M B Synge