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Updated: Jul 4, 2021

What is Reformation? Reformation refers to the big religious movement of the 16th Century. The aim was to reform the doctrines and practices of the Church of Rome. In short, it was a revolt against Catholicism. Who started it? It was October 31, 1517, Martin Luther, an ex-Augustinian monk of Germany nailed to the door of the Wittenburg Church with ninety-five debating points against the doctrines and other significant matters, with this started the great religious movement. Clearly, it was not started in England. Before getting to what was the reaction of the Reformation movement in England let’s see the causes. Why and what gave birth to Reformation, the causes? 1. Some of the doctrines and practices of the Church of Rome became outdated and irrelevant. 2. The widespread questioning attitude due to the effect of a renaissance. 3. The growing spirit of nationalism, which gave rise to independence, individuality and intolerance of being under the supremacy of a foreign Pope. 4. The rivalry between Pope, Anti-Pope and corruption by nepotism. 5. In 1499, the fund contribution to the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica and the practice that whoever charge or pay more will get soul purgation. This commercial operation which happened under the name of Christianity provoked. What was the reaction of England to this movement? England did not react to it. It defended this protest which is reflected through the book written on defending by the King himself Henry VIII, titled Defensor Fidei (defender of the faith). What changed this healthy relationship between the Pope and the King? It was a woman! The desire of the King to get married for the second time to Anne Boleyn, a young lady-in-waiting in the court by terminating his marriage from Queen Catherine of Aragon. By the influence of Cardinal Wolsey and William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury he went to ask the permission of Pope Clement VII, the answer was a no. This broke the relationship between England from Rome. It is said the suggestion was provided by Thomas Cranmer. What happened next?

In 1529 a parliament was summoned by the King which is known as the Reformation Parliament.

1. The fee payment to clergy was cut. 2. The control of the Crown over the Church courts was made strict. 3. Forbade any appeal from an English court to Rome. 4. The first year’s income of the bishopric was cut. 5. The right to appoint bishops was given to the Crown. 6. The Act of Supremacy passed in 1534 abolished the Pope’s authority completely. 7. The Bishops heads (who refused to pledge the Crown) were kept in London Bridge to scare away people. 8. In 1536, a bill was passed to confiscate all the monasteries with more wealth by the King. What did Edward VI do during his reign?

> In 1549, the first prayer book- the translations of the prayers and forms of worships that had been used over a thousand years in England, written by Archbishop Cranmer. > Second prayer book- to some extent questions the great Roman Catholic doctrine. THE MAD QUEEN MARY:

Mary’s reign was just 5 years but she has done innumerable unspeakable things to the Reformation England. In 1554, she brought back The Church of Rome and its practices back to England. As the riot was high, in order to wipe away the whole Protestantism, she burned people alive in a place called Smithfield. She almost burned 300 people. [Out of subject- like The Mad King from GOT- Game of Thrones] ELIZABETH- THE FOUNDER OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND:

Queen Elizabeth brought peace to England by creating The Church of England. She made the Church national and inclusive of more people. She let the second prayer book of Edward VI as the common prayer book all over the nation. She insisted people go to Church every Sunday. People had to pay a penalty of 12 pence for non- attendance. Finally, in 1563, the doctrines of The Church of England were added to the common prayer book. Sources: Social History of England by Louise Creighton An Introduction to the Social History of England by A.G.Xavier A Short History of Social Life in England by M B Synge

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